Positive moves in structural transformation

Comprehensively understood structure includes many types (such as economic sector structure, economic type structure…), through types of structures with impact and efficiency factors (labor, investment, budget…).

ECONOMIC SECTOR STRUCTURE

Economic sector structure is the most popular structure among all types of structures for countries around the world. With Vietnam in the process of industrialization and modernization, the structure and restructuring of the economic sector is even more meaningful.

The structure of Vietnam’s economic sector from 2010 to present is shown in Figure 1. Accordingly, the structure and restructuring of the economic sector from 2010 to present have achieved some positive results.

Firstly, the decrease in the proportion of agriculture, forestry – fishery, the increase in the proportion of industry – construction and services is in the right direction in the process of industrialization to become an industrial country and the trend of increasing the proportion of services in the world. gender.

Second, the real economy (including agriculture, forestry – fishery and industry – construction) still accounts for a higher proportion of the service economy, which is suitable for economies in transition to cope with the pandemic. with external fluctuations through the “invasion” of services (because the Vietnamese currency is not yet a convertible currency and the transportation and financial service stages are still weak, not ensuring competition or technical barriers of other countries against Vietnam’s export goods).

Third, the restructuring of the economic sector also shows the need to accelerate to achieve the goal of reducing the proportion of agricultural labor in total social labor to 26.5% in 2024.

Each specific industry group also had positive results and raised some structural issues. In the agriculture, forestry – fishery industry group, the agricultural sector has had a rapid shift when increasing the proportion of vegetables, fruits and industrial crops and still maintaining a high proportion of rice. The forestry industry still accounts for a very small proportion, while this industry plays a very important role in flood control, providing forestry products for industry, export and is increasingly important in its commitment to reduce pollution. The fisheries sector has a high proportion, in which the proportion of aquaculture has exceeded that of exploitation.

In the industry – construction industry group, the decrease in the proportion of the mining industry is in the right direction. In 2023, the processing and manufacturing industry will encounter difficulties in output, so growth will be low, making the proportion of this industry in GDP not reach the target (23.88% compared to 25-25.8%). , so the 2024 plan had to be brought down to 24.1-24.2%.

In the structure of the processing and manufacturing industry according to technology level, although the number of high-tech enterprises has increased, the proportion is still low (in 2021 it will be 12.82% compared to 32.64% of industrial enterprises). medium technology and 54.54% low technology enterprises).

The proportion of average technology increased, while the proportion of low technology decreased but was still large – larger than the total proportion of high technology and medium technology. This proves that the technology ratio of domestic enterprises is still weak due to small scale, little capital, and very limited ability to absorb high technology.

The proportion of high technology and the proportion of medium technology increased mainly due to the increase in foreign-invested enterprises, but processing and assembly remained high, with the main goal of using a large number of workers, Cheap labor costs and incentives that Vietnam enjoys when participating in new generation FTAs.

ECONOMIC TYPE STRUCTURE

The economic structure is a unique structure of countries with post-renovation, open and integrated economies like Vietnam.

Vietnam’s economic structure over a number of years is as follows (Chart 2).

Through the chart, it can be seen that the proportion of the state economy is decreasing, but the decrease is very slight (21.8% in 2021 compared to 22.84% in 2015).

In the enterprise sector, the proportion of state-owned enterprises (number of enterprises, number of employees, capital, fixed assets and long-term financial investments, revenue, income, profit before tax) is as follows ( Table 1).

In general, the proportion of state-owned enterprises in the total enterprise sector has decreased over the years. This is the result of the reform process, moving to a market economy to exploit the resources of all types of economies for development. Comparing the indicators, the proportion of pre-tax profit is high, the proportion of net revenue and income is low compared to the proportion of operating capital. However, the proportion of other indicators is many times higher than the proportion of number of enterprises, including the proportion of number of employees; The highest proportion of operating capital, net revenue, and income is only half of the capital proportion. This proves that the operating efficiency of state-owned enterprises is still low…

The article’s content was published in the special publication Economy 2023-2024: Vietnam & the World released on March 6, 2024. Dear readers, we invite you to read here This:

https://postenp.phaha.vn/chi-tiet-toa-soan/tap-chi- Kinh-te-viet-nam

Positive moves in structural transformation - Photo 1

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